Gay men around the world receive less paid parental leave than lesbian or heterosexual couples.
A study at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) examined paternity laws in 33 member countries that offer paid leave to new parents.
On average, same-sex male couples had five fewer months of paid leave than different-sex couples, while same-sex females received three fewer months than heterosexual couples.
Australia, New Zealand, Iceland and Sweden were the only countries to offer the same paid leave to all couples, including gay men, ranging from 18 to 70 weeks.
Adoption leave for same-sex couples ranged from zero to 104 weeks, while different-sex couples could expect seven to 178 weeks, and male couples continued to see a starker difference in leave than female couples.